I can seem to remember several things, I'll follow them up off of memory or websites - this may range from other games to real life folklore, movies, TV, anime, etc. Personally I am not suprised by these findings, adding in real world elements to this game makes it much stronger. The subject of Wolves reaches far prepare thy self for a essay....
I once heard that in a explosion of light a shadow is cast perhaps it is The Darkness though that quote may be totally unrelated. I also found it very odd that The Darkness is basically described like Sithis from The Elder Scrolls games & it has also been considered that pure Darkness is the ultimate evil worse then say something like The Devil, something extremely ancient.
Now that you mention Wolf I even looked at Okami (No one ever said game developers can't be inspired by other games) & plot twist Okami saves the world from "Darkness" which obviously traces back to real life lore. Also I read a brief mention of a "Celestral Envoy" perhaps this is something like The Guardians. Now then leading from Okami's japanese lore take to Japan's anime
Here is a great anime I highly recommend btw - from the anime Wolf's Rain. Their is a paradise (The Last City?) only wolves can find & they must find paradise before the next red moon or all the human race plus wolves die, also stated in it is the belief that humans may have been derived from wolves. During the anime the wolves have the ability to take human form or become fully human (might be irrelevant) but The Chechen & Turkic people in real life lore are both symbolically said to be variously related to wolves.
Then we have Princess Mononoke.... super famous anime movie would not be suprised to see elements here in Destiny. We must understand The Law Of The Jungle seems to resemble some Japanese takes. I included anime as it is especially a big expression used by Japan. Many other animes have wolf referances but i'll just use those 2 for example reasons.
Then we have the movies - the jungle book's Akela & Maugrim from Narnia. Also here's some movie/RL folklore: Loki's eldest child is a planet sized wolf named Fenrir :)
Then we have real world folklore, I happen to notice that the wolf represents despair & light. Perhaps Bungie rephrased it as a Wolf of light in times of darkness?
The Wolf is a common use & typically symbolizes The Warrior or Evil as we all know. Don't forget Lycanthropy the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf. I believe Dante's Inferno says Dante is attacked by a wolf going up the mountain - (Maybe this relates to the 3 astronaughts going up the hill to see The Traveler?) Their is also Arcadia & Zeus's alter which is up a mountain.
Christianity has 13 referances to wolves - feel free to look that up in your own time XD
Then we have Mars we know it's symbology & people today still think it's the 1st place we would colonize. Not to mention the wolf star Sirius, often said to be the brightest star in the night sky which according to the Pawnee wasn't invited to the council of how the earth should be made.
On Mars their is a giant mountain btw. I remember hearing on the news. Perhaps their is a connection Guardian (Wolves) - Mountain (Perhaps where The Traveler was found/The Trailer) - Moon (Traveler) - it is said the moon grants power to it's wolves The Traveler is the moon & it gives power to the guardians. Example: The Walock: The Midnight Sun description (Sirius referance?)
I also noticed that the planets in Destiny have become what scientist use to think they were like if I remember correctly scientist use to think Venus was a garden world well that changed but in humanity's golden age it did become a garden world.
Then we have the very real Direwolf unusually large extinct power full wolves as well as the many races of current wolf today.
I could go on forever but I think I'll leave off here. Hope you enjoyed & can use this information as you please, personally I think Bungie included it to make the game stronger as I've said.