Could have damaged it, but it's unlikely. Even if something is broken you can always fix it yourself.
Yeah, and from what I understand, the only thing I might have damaged that's in the center of it is one part of the motherboard, not the CPU, but I don't know which part.
If you damaged the motherboard at all, you'd know. Mainly by seeing the PS4 not boot on. The motherboard needs all its connections and lines to be perfect, so if you damaged it, it won't boot. If it boots, you're fine.