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originally posted in:Fitness
Edited by Shieldy ACE: 1/13/2013 1:40:03 AM

Nutrition 101

Here goes: Pin if needed-- [b]The Basics[/b] The Calorie-The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of water 1 degree celcius. Often refered to as kcal Alcohol-7kcal/g. Provides no nutritional value Protein-4kcal/g. Carbohydrate-4kcal/g Fats-9kcal/g [b]VBM[/b]-Variety, Balance, and Moderation. My department really stresses this as important in nutrition. Basically no food is off limits, and is fine in moderation. [b]Digestion[/b]-I'll keep it short here Stomach-Food remains here for 2-4 hours, then is transported to the Small Intestine via the Pyloric sphincter Small Intestine-The MAIN source of digestion and absorption. Large Intestine-Main site or water absorption (last call for body to absorb remaining water--then produces solid waste), vitamins and minerals Lacteal System-Absorbs fat Bile-Made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Is the MAIN emulsifier of fat and is ESSENTIAL (required for full function/abosrption) of fat. Is comprised mainly of cholesterol [b]Macronutrients[/b] [b]Carbohydrate[/b]-Commonly referred to as (CHO)-Contains a carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecule -The main (and favorite) fuel source for the body -Stored in the liver and skeletal muscle as glycogen. A full days worth or more can be stored Glycogen-Stored carbohydrate (glucose) Complex Carbs-starch(amylopectin and amylose) and fiber. Generally are absorbed slower, and keep you full longer. Monosaccharides-glucose, fructose, and galactose Disachharides-Maltose, sucrose, and lactose Polysachharides (complex carbs)-starches, fiber and glycogen [b]Fiber[/b]-Very important for feeling of satiety(fullness), slows glucose absorption (minimizes insulin response), reduces cholesterol. Found in all plants Insoluble fiber (dietary fiber)-Not dissolved in water Soluble-Dissolved in water. Considered very healthy (especially for the cardiovascular system) ---Too much fiber--May decrease nutrient intake too much by increasing satiety. 25-35g daily. -Also contains phytates and oxylates which DECREASE the absorption of many vitamins and minerals. (Because of these phytates and oxylates, vitamins and minerals from plant products generally have less absorption) [b]Insulin[/b]-Is produced when carbohydrates are digested (mainly monosaccharides)Promotes glycogen synthesis. Basically delivers glucose via the blood stream into cells for energy. [b]Glucagon[/b]-Breaks down glycogen and increases the amount of blood glucose [b]Gluconeogenesis[/b]-If there is insufficient dietary or stored carbohydrate the body can convert amino acids (protein) into glucose. Fats cannot be converted into blood glucose Ketosis-Occurs when there is insufficient carbohydrate intake to metabolize fatty acids. 50-100g a day required to avoid ketosis. It negatively affects the brain (brain requires carbs-glucose) and produces ketone bodies which are harmul. Ketone bodies also cause the incomplete oxidation of fat (use of fat as fuel). So ketone diets (very, very low) carb diets can be very harmful and won't fully oxidize fat. Avoid them [b]Glycemic Index[/b]-A number that reflects the bodies ability to convert the food into blood glucose. Generally simple carbs (sugars) have high GI, and complex carbs have lower GI's. High GI, cause higher insulin spikes [b]FATS[/b]-AKA lipids (hydrophobic) and are broken down into triglycerides. Requires bile for digestion. ESSENTIAL for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins which are stored in fat (you cannot absorb fat soluble vitamins without dietary fat). Helps with satiety. Stored as adipose (fat) [b]Saturated Fat[/b]-Found only in animal products with the exception of coconut oil. Solid at room temperature. Raises total cholesterol (raises HDL and LDL) and overall increases risk of CVD. Typical recommendation is to limit these, but not not necessary to avoid entirely. [b]Monounsaturated Fats[/b]-Lower LDL, and increase HDL (the good cholesterol). Found in things like canola oil, olive oil, and avocados. Definitely the "healthy fats" [b]Polyunsaturated Fats[/b]-Composed of the Omegas (specifically 3s and 6s) [b]Omega 3s[/b]-Probably the healthiest thing you can ingest. THE MOST effective dietary nutrient for a healthy blood lipid profile (LDL and HDL). Vastly decreases LDL and raises HDL. Essential. Decreases inflammation (the major cause of most diseases). Definitely increase Omega 3 intake -Broken down into ALA (Alpha Linoleic Acid) and then into EPA and DHA. [b]Fish Omega 3s[/b]-EPA and DHA are readily absorbed in fish and do not need to be broken down from ALA. Omega 3s originally come from ocean sea weed and is then eaten by small fish, who are eaten by larger fish. This makes the concentration in fish much higher. BY FAR the most research shows the benefits of Omega 3s are from fish, not Flax (or plant sources) [b]Flax Omega 3s[/b]-Also contains Omega 6s (avoid) and omega 9s (Non essential-made in the body). EPA and DHA are not readily absorbed from Flax and must be broken down from ALA. Inefficent conversion. Flax seeds must also be grinded for better absorption. (Fish Omega 3s are better than Flax or plant sources) [b]Omega 6s[/b]-Found in plant products (vegetable oils) and are widely added to processed foods (its cheap). Increases inflammation (avoid). Lowers LDL and HDL. Omega 6 intake is already very (too) high in most Americans. Limit these. [b]Optimal ratio of Omegas[/b]-Most experts approximate the average American's ratio of Omega 6s to Omega 3s is) 10:1 or possibly even more. 2/3 of Americans get NO Omega 3s in their diets. The typical recommendation is a 2:1 ratio or a 1:1 ratio. Basically increase your Omega 3 intake (from fish) [b]Trans Fats[/b]-Does not occur naturally in nature and is produced via processing to increase the shelf life of products. Lowers HDL and raises LDL. Avoid entirely as it vastly increases your risk of CVD and many other diseases [b]Cholesterol[/b]-Produced in liver or also acquired in diet. Generally has a low impact on HDL and LDL. [b]HDL[/b](High Density Lipoprotein)-The Good cholesterol. Comprised mainly of protein and removes excess cholesterol (LDL) from the body [b]LDL[/b](Low Density Lipoprotein)-The Bad cholesterol. Made up mostly of cholesterol. Causes plaque build up when in excess Total Blood lipid profile (HDL + LDL) should be below 200 [b]Protein[/b]-Comprised of Amino Acids (the Building blocks of proteins). Made up of non-essential and essential Amino Acids. Requires 200-300 AAs to make 1 protein Absorbed into the blood stream. Is NOT stored Requires energy to be stored as fat. Can be converted to glucose thru gluconeogenesis. Is most important (along with fiber) for satiety 20 total AAs-8 Essential, 12 Non-Essential (made in the body). AA sequence affects shape and function. Peptide(s)-Combination Amino Acids High quality protein sources-Contains ALL Essential AAs in AMPLE amounts [b]Biological Value[/b]-Compares Nitrogen retained in body. Basically shows its absorption rate. Generally highest in animal products. [url=]List[/url]. As you can see, animal products are absorbed FAR more than plan sources [b]Complementary Proteins[/b]-Refers to two separate sources of proteins that can combine together to make a complete AA sequence. Insufficient protein intake: May cause Edema-Protein malnutrition in urea (urine) or Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)--Two types which negatively affect all systems (protein is essential for optimal function). Often found in Vegans, Vegetarians, Fruitarians, or poor areas in Africa. Kwashiorkor-Major protein deficit. Causes edema, dry skin, sores, low weight/height, poor immune system and brittle hair Marasmus-A starvation state (low calorie, low protein). Caused by chronic PEM. Low muscle and apathetic/irritable. [b]Alcohol[/b]-NO nutritional value. Is treated as a toxin and the 7kcal/g are burned quickly. -Decreases Anti-Diuretic Hormone in the kidneys which causes the major increase in urine output (you're not really pissing out pure alcohol) -Decreases absorption of vitamins and minerals -Increases malnutrition (many alcoholics are malnourished because they can't absorb vitamins well) -Decreases fat as an energy source by 1/3 Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Located in the stomach. Enzyme responsible for the digestion of alcohol. Basically the more you have, the higher your tolerance. 2-3x higher in males [b]Order of likelihood of being stored as fat[/b] (In excess) Least likely to most likely: 1)Alcohol-Is treated as a toxin. Body burns of fuel from alcohol first, then goes onto fats, proteins, carbs 2)Protein-Requires energy to be stored as fat (very unlikely) 3)Carbs-Little energy is required. May depend on GI (or Insulin) 4)Fats-Little to no energy at all required for excess dietary fat to be stored as adipose tissue Phew. You phags better appreciate this [Edited on 10.04.2011 2:06 PM PDT]

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